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« Libérons le potentiel des entrepreneuses africaines ! » – Afridonia Study
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« Libérons le potentiel des entrepreneuses africaines ! »



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“L’Afrique est la seule région du monde où la majorité des entrepreneurs sont des entrepreneuses. Elles travaillent plus longtemps que les hommes et même celles qui ne dirigent pas d’entreprises contribuent à nourrir leurs pays à travers leur engagement dans le secteur agricole. Pourtant, plusieurs obstacles entravent leur participation à l’économie.

Ainsi, le problème simple que représente l’éducation des femmes continue de fragiliser nos fondamentaux. Selon la Banque mondiale, seules 30 % des femmes d’affaires ont terminé leurs études secondaires, alors que 40 % des hommes d’affaires ont reçu une formation spécifique sur l’entrepreneuriat. Si nous arrivions à régler la question de l’accès à une éducation de qualité adaptée à nos besoins, nous tournerions à plein régime. Par ailleurs, résoudre la question de l’éducation des filles n’est pas qu’un défi africain : selon la Banque mondiale, les problèmes structurels qui limitent l’accès aux filles et aux femmes à douze années d’éducation coûtent aux pays entre 15 000 et 30 000 milliards de dollars (entre 13 300 et 26 600 milliards d’euros euros) en pertes de productivité et de revenus.

Manque d’accès à la terre

La création de richesse étant notre objectif, il est tout autant important de reconnaître les organes vitaux qui permettront aux femmes de faire tourner l’Afrique à plein régime. En ce sens, le secteur agricole est notre système vasculaire : il faut donc donner plus de moyens adaptés à la majorité des Africaines travaillant dans l’agriculture. Celles-ci doivent en effet franchir de nombreux obstacles, notamment le manque d’accès à la terre, aux marchés agricoles, aux innovations et aux intrants tels que les semences et les engrais. Si nous nous y attelons, les Africaines pourront récolter les fruits de leur labeur, sachant que, selon la Banque africaine de développement, la taille du marché des produits alimentaires en Afrique atteindra le cap des 1 000 milliards de dollars en 2030.

Un autre défi réside dans la diversification des secteurs dans lesquels les femmes créent leurs entreprises. En Afrique, celles-ci sont souvent cantonnées à certains domaines considérés comme leur chasse gardée : le textile, la restauration et l’hôtellerie ; alors que les secteurs du transport, de la manufacture ou de la construction, qui sont dominés par les hommes, offrent un meilleur retour sur investissement. Par ailleurs, de nombreuses entrepreneuses le deviennent par nécessité économique, avec d’importantes contraintes telles que les différences de compétences, de capital, de réseaux, de formation, de temps et de charges familiales. Si notre objectif est de créer de la richesse, il est peut-être temps d’affranchir les Africaines des limites qui leur sont imposées par certains acteurs et par la structure de nos sociétés.

Mutualiser nos ressources

Il nous faut enfin assurer la protection des femmes lorsqu’elles investissent dans des secteurs à prédominance masculine, où les entreprises qu’elles créent sont en moyenne plus grandes et plus rentables. Mais pour arriver à changer la donne, nous devons transformer nos épargnes solidaires (les tontines, par exemple) en levier d’investissements et mutualiser nos ressources. Les millions d’Africains disposant de revenus réguliers peuvent emboîter le pas aux Ethiopiens de la diaspora, qui ont mobilisé un peu plus de 2 millions de dollars entre octobre 2018 et février 2019. Nous pouvons faire beaucoup mieux à l’échelle du continent et de la diaspora. Notre objectif commun doit être de mettre nos ressources au service de la transformation de l’économie africaine.

L’Afrique compte 600 millions de femmes. Limiter leur capacité à prospérer freine les avancées dont nous avons désespérément besoin pour créer des emplois. Mais les Africaines ne sont pas seules face à ces difficultés. Les solutions que nous trouvons ici, en Afrique, renforceront le potentiel des femmes à travers le monde.”

Par Carl Malan, LeMondeAfrique

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